Tuesday, 20 August 2013

Global Warming: CO2 Facts and Myths

Contrary to what some people claim, for the subject of climate change (which really means global warming), the science is not settled. There is much contention amongst various groups of climate scientists over the issue as to how much impact human activity has upon the climate. Most scientists fall within the category of believing mankind has some impact upon climate, but that the measure of this impact can not really be determined. However, there is also an extremist group that believes mankind is almost completely responsible for the recent spate of global warming and that it will have catastrophic results upon the climate of the earth. This group is identified as those who adhere to Catastrophic Anthropogenic Global Warming (CAGW).

Unfortunately, this CAGW group has been given much media attention and this would only be natural, since the media loves to have sensational headlines to attract readers. For instance, a headline like this: “Climate Change Is Decimating Polar Bear Populations” is quite eye-catching. It doesn’t matter if it is true or not, but if a CAGW “scientist” sends out a press release with such a heading, the media will snap it up and “dig further” to juice up the details before publishing it.

The core of CAGW is the “excessive” presence of human contributed carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. CAGW claims that such contribution is warming up the earth to the point that we are heading towards major catastrophes such as our coastal cities flooding due to the melting of Arctic ice. Of course, this should be a concern for any thinking person. However, thinking persons should also know some facts about CO2, and these are facts that the CAGW will keep hidden from the public as much as it can.

Fact #1: Temperature/CO2 Correlation - Temperature Drives CO2

In 2006, Al Gore’s famous documentary, An Inconvenient Truth was launched. It won 2 Academy Awards, and was viewed by millions of people. Within this documentary, Al Gore showed some charts linking temperature with atmospheric CO2 content, and said that there was an obvious correlation, but he left it at that. It was true that there is a correlation between temperature and CO2 level, however, Mr. Gore neglected to specify what that correlation was, other than to hint that it was “complicated.” By 2003, scientists had been able to clearly identify what that correlation was from the Vostok ice core from Greenland taken in 1985. The correlation was that atmospheric CO2 is driven by temperature, and not the other way around. It was a very well-known scientific fact by 2006 that such was the case, but Mr. Gore chose to give the public a convenient half truth. When you take just a 50,000 year time span, like the chart below, the cause/effect factor of the correlation is quite obvious.

There is also a correlation between rain and umbrellas, but the goal of the scientist is to isolate from a correlation, the cause and effect. There is an old Jewish proverb that states: “A half truth is a whole lie.” This proverb is quite applicable to Mr. Gore’s An Inconvenient Truth, which was the antithesis of being truthful.

Fact #2: CO2’s Impact upon Temperature is Logarithmic and not Linear

What logarithmic means here is that as the amount of CO2 increases in the atmosphere, its impact as a greenhouse gases diminishes at each level of increase. As a further explanation, as CO2 levels increase in the atmosphere, the impact upon temperature becomes less and less. The chart below demonstrates how this works.

Observe that when there is 20 ppm (parts per million) of CO2 in the atmosphere, this has an impact of raising the temperature by more than 1.5 C. However, when the amount is doubled to 40 ppm, the additional impact is only 0.3 C, which is an impact of 80% less. The percentage decline becomes greater as more CO2 is added. As for the meaning of the amounts in this chart and where we stand now, see the following chart.
Please note carefully that plant growth shuts down when atmospheric levels of CO2 are less than 150 ppm, for CO2 is essential for life to exist on the earth. Note especially that for our current level of CO2, around 395 ppm, any further increases will have a minimal effect; and with even a doubling of CO2 to pre-industrial levels, will mean a temperature increase by less that 0.2 C from where stand currently. This is something the CAGW will not tell the public, even though they know this is a fact.

To put this principle into a layman’s terms, if you were sleeping with 10 blankets over you in your bed, would adding an 11th blanket make you any warmer?

Fact #3: CO2 Has Minimal Impact Upon Climate, as Geological History Shows

This chart is most revealing:

This chart goes back to almost 600 million years and reveals the estimated atmospheric CO2. It shows that for 99% of the time, CO2 levels were much greater than they are today. At some points, CO2 levels were 20 times as much as we currently have. Did the earth reach a tipping point and destroy all life on the planet because of such high CO2 levels? No, it did not, and the reason for that is that CO2 is a very minor greenhouse gas. It has very little impact on temperature/climate. Even if CO2 did have a large impact on climate, it is nature itself that is producing the vast majority of CO2 annually, and not mankind. Mankind’s contribution to atmospheric CO2 per year runs from about 3% to 4%. Nature is responsible for the producing all the rest. This is another fact that CAGW will not tell you.

Remember, CAGW stands for Catastrophic Anthropogenic Global Warming. It is a collective mindset of just a few scientists, and a few public figures like Al Gore who use the media to distort the truth for whatever agenda they have in the back of their minds. I was never much given to conspiracy theories, but after exploring this area of the myth of anthropogenic global warming, I have considered changing my mind about the existence of conspiracies when it comes to “climate change.” AGW is not science, for as they claim that the “science is settled,” no true scientist would ever make such a claim, for science is never settled on anything.

Now let me explore some myths about CO2.

Myth #1: CO2 Initiates a Feedback to the Climate which Will Destroy the Earth

The CAGW suggests that CO2 creates a feedback by making the earth warmer, and thus this increases evaporation, which puts more water vapour into the atmosphere and this cycle will increase and kill us all. At least the CAGW admits that water vapor is the principal greenhouse gas, and that it is far more powerful than CO2.

However, the existence of this feedback system can not be demonstrated through scientific data, and in fact, the data refutes the claim. The American Meteorological Society published a paper: A Surface Water Vapor Pressure and Temperature Trends in North America during 1948–2010 completed in May 2012, concluded that in fact, relative humidity reduced by 0.5% per decade in that period - so much for CO2 causing a feedback by increasing atmospheric water vapor. Regardless, this does not stop the CAGW because it is the theory it believes in, and not the actual data. To me, CAGW sound more like a religion than science.

Myth #2: Atmospheric CO2 is Pollution or Poison

Contrary to the CAGW hype that CO2 is pollution or poison in the atmosphere, the exact opposite is true. CO2 is necessary for the growth of plant life, and without it, all life on the earth would die out. As a matter of fact, through the agency of NASA satellite monitoring, it has been discovered that the rise in CO2 has made the earth more green. In other words, plant life is thriving more than it was years ago, and mankind is benefiting from this growth in many ways.

This composite graph shows the Net Primary Productivity (NPP) from 1983 to 2003, a 20-year period wherein there was a net growth of plants by 6% worldwide. It is unfortunate that all CAGW can think of is dire consequences from its cockeyed theories of overheating of the earth through bogus feedback, and not see the benefits of more CO2. You will never hear this information about a greening earth from Al Gore and his like.

Myth #3: There Has Been Accelerated Global Warming in the Last 10 Years (the Obama Myth)

I was shocked to hear President Obama’s recent claim there has been accelerated global warming in the last 10 years. Anyone who has looked at the global temperatures would know that global warming ceased more than 15 years ago. This is a fact that even the IPCC admits, and the IPCC is a hardcore global warming fanatical organization.

So how does CAGW explain this pause in global warming over the last 15 years? Since CO2 continually rises in the atmosphere, why has global warming stalled? Its response is quite unique, as it says that the heat is being contained in the oceans of the world. Given that heat rises, which is a basic law of physics, its response is rather silly. Heat is not going to stay in the oceans for 15 years waiting for just the right time to jump out and burn us all alive, now is it? Well, those who adhere to CAGW have no better response than a stupid one like this. It is not surprising. Besides, the data is not showing warm water hiding in the oceans, for there are thermometers all of the places measuring temperatures. CAGW created its own myth, so it now creates another lie to bolster the original lie.

The Media is the Greatest Myth Maker

I would advise every thinking person to be very leery of the media and what it puts out there. Remember, the media is trying to get readership, and it is not going to achieve such a goal by producing boring headlines and photos. I will deal with the most recent myth created by the media, because it says it all.

Do you remember this story about how a lake formed at the north pole, with these two pictures, the “before” and “after” pictures? OMG! Right? The Arctic is melting away even at the north pole. We are all doomed!

Few would ever read a retraction from the media, but the truth behind these two pictures was that the “before” picture was taken at the north pole, and the “after” picture was taken almost 400 miles away by the same buoy. You see, these buoys travel around a lot up there in the Arctic Ocean. Here is an extract from North Pole ‘Lake’ Vanishes:

When the meltwater lake appeared in mid-July, the buoys were about 375 miles (600 kilometers) south of the geographic North Pole. Their journey from April to July put the buoys on parallel to the magnetic North Pole, which is currently west of Greenland.

The media is the great myth maker. I just wonder how many who read the original story about a lake forming at the north pole, found out it was simply a myth created by a lie, by overzealous newspersons. I am betting not many. One should be leery of the media, and the above is a classic example as to why.

Friday, 26 July 2013

An Inconvenient Fact - The Ice Age in Which We Live

Past and Present Climate States of the Earth

About 3 million years ago, a most significant geological event took place - the Isthmus of Panama was completely formed. Prior to that time, there was a wide gap between the continents of North and South America. The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans had flowed freely together in the tropics through the gap separating the American continent. Three million years ago, this gap closed and ocean currents worldwide changed significantly. What now know as the Isthmus of Panama changed the world’s climate in way that was not always beneficial to life on earth.

Starting about 2.6 million years ago, the earth commenced an ice age that exists even to this day. Many scientists believe that the Isthmus of Panama was the culprit for this present ice age we live in. Oh yes, we do live in an ice age, be we are fortunate at the present, for we live in a time period between glaciations called an interglacial period. For the last million years, and for almost 900,000 of those years, the earth has experienced much colder temperatures. So cold were those temperatures that huge ice sheets formed over North America and Eurasia, each one being more than 5 million square miles in area at the height of their growth, and at their centres, they were 2 miles thick.

Those interglacial periods, like the one we currently live within, were rather short, averaging about 10,000 to 12,000 years in length. So, in the past million years, there have been about 11 of these interglacial periods, interspersed by long cold periods of glaciation lasting from 80-100,000 years.

The previous interglacial period started around 130,000 years ago, and it was much warmer than our current interglacial. This previous one peaked around 120,000 years ago and hippopotami frolicked in the Thames and Rhine Rivers of Europe. Our own interglacial period started about 11,500 years ago. How much longer do we have before the world does plunge again into another 90,000 year period of glaciation? That is what I would like to discuss in this article.

Forces Controlling These Periods

The earth’s geography has not changed too much in the last million years. The Atlantic Ocean has increased in width slightly due to the American plates drifting further west. Of course, the Isthmus of Panama is still doing its thing to the ocean currents and thus, the period of glaciation is the norm or default condition for this age we live in.

Human civilization has only arisen in the last 10,000 years. We really know nothing else except this lovely warm period we called the Holocene Epoch, which is actually just one of eleven interglacial periods that have sprung up in the last million years. Our entire history is recorded within this very short, and very warm period of time.

There are some powerful astronomical cycles that controls this ice age we live in, and these forces enable an interglacial to appear from time to time. It seems that these short warm periods come with relative regularity - every 100,000 years or so.

There are three major astronomical cycles (Milankovitch Cycles) that control the mega-climate of the earth: (1) eccentricity, (2) obliquity, and (3) precession. These are big words to describe the more commonly understood words: (1) orbit, (2) tilt, (3) wobble (where the earth’s axis points to in the Universe) - all relating to the earth as it moves through space, and around the sun.

Eccentricity (Orbit)

If the earth’s orbit was completely circular, earth would remain at a constant distance of about 93 million miles from the sun at all times. Earth’s orbit is not circular for most of the time but is elliptical. What that means is that during our orbit around the sun, there is a point when we are closest to the sun, and on the opposite side we are further away from the sun. At the present time, we are only about 91.5 million miles in distance from the sun around January 2-3 each year; whereas on July 4th of each year, we are farther away at 94.5 million miles. This means that our northern hemisphere receives more solar energy in the dead of winter due to our orbit, but less solar energy from eccentricity during our summers.

Our orbit around the sun goes through a cycle of about 100,000 years. At the peak of our elliptical orbit the range of our distance from the sun increases considerably to the extent that the difference in solar energy received can be as much as 25-30%. In other words, when the earth is closer to the sun at the peak, we might be at around only 88 million miles from the sun, but at the opposite end we would be 98 million miles from the sun. This difference would cause extremes in temperatures on the earth, according to the seasons. However, such extremes are a good thing, for during the warmer times on the earth during the interglacial periods, that is how the earth warms up and melts the ice sheets, and how the earth remains warm - through the extremes. At the present time, our orbit is only giving us a 3% difference in solar energy at the extremes, which is relatively negligible. Unfortunately, our orbit is moving towards a more circular orbit and thus, less elliptical. That is not a good thing in order to maintain a warmer earth.

Obliquity (Tilt)

What gives us the different seasons at higher latitudes is the tilt of the earth. This cycle is 41,000 years in length and at its extreme, the tilt towards the sun is 24.5 degrees and the less extreme is at 22.1 degrees. At the extreme, the difference in the amount of solar energy being received at the upper latitudes of the earth is about 15% more. Therefore, when the earth leans at 24.5 degrees in the summer, the northern hemisphere receives 15% more solar energy than it does when the tilt is at 22.1 degrees. However, this would also mean that during the winter, it would receive much less at that extreme tilt. Regardless, at the higher degree tilt, this is when glaciation is eradicated during an interglacial, and this is when the earth is kept warmer to prevent glaciation from happening.

Precession (wobble)

Precession has a much shorter cycle than the other two, at approximately 19 to 26 thousand years - overall average of 22 thousand years. In and of itself, the very nature of precession had no effect upon increase or decrease in solar radiation. However, when combined at its various stages in its cycle with eccentricity and obliquity, it can have a profound effect. For you see, the cycle of precession dictates when the summer or winter of a hemisphere aligns with the orbit and/or tilt.

For instance, at the start the present day interglacial about 11,500 years ago, the summer of the northern hemisphere received maximum solar energy from the tilt of the earth and from the elliptical orbit. That is why all the continental glaciers in North America and Eurasia melted so quickly. Now, 11,500 years later, the cycle is at the opposite as less solar radiation is received in the summer as we now receive in the winter.


The first principle to understand is that it is the eccentricity of the earth that controls when interglacial periods happen. This cycle is about 100,000 years long and this coincides perfectly with interglacials occurring every 100,000 years or so. When interglacial periods occur, it is always when the eccentricity cycle is very near or at its peak. Conversely, when the coldest part of a glaciation period arrives, it is always when the orbit of the earth is almost circular - in other words, when there is little difference in the distance of the earth to the sun at any points in the orbit, much like it is now.

The second principle is that when the tilt or obliquity cycle is at or near its peak, in the middle of the peak of the eccentricity cycle, this is when an interglacial period happens. This has happened 11 times in the last million years with the 11 interglacial periods corresponding. There were no exceptions, but there were a couple of interglacial periods with double peaks - these occurred within the two different eccentricity cycles that were especially strong.

The third principle is this: interglacial periods occur when there are extremes in temperatures, and NOT when the earth is more moderate in climate. In other words, when the northern hemisphere receives very hot summers, and very cold winters, that keeps glaciation away. However, when the northern hemisphere experiences warm summers and mild winters, this is when glaciation will happen, and when it does, such glaciation will continue for almost 100,000 years.

Why am I always referring to the northern hemisphere? Well, the answer is very simple - this is where the continental glaciers have been, and will be, located - over all of Canada and the northern part of the United States, and the other one over the northern part of Eurasia (mainly all of northern Europe and Siberia). The southern hemisphere does not matter for most of it is water, but it is the northern hemisphere that contains two-thirds of all the dry land on the earth. Therefore, that is where those glaciers grow. When (not “if”), glaciation happens again, this will prove to be the greatest challenge that human civilization has or ever will, face.

When Will the Next Glaciation Occur?

We are closer to another long period of glaciation than you might think. In fact, as I did a comparison as to what were the states of the astronomical cycles when the last 10 periods of glaciation commenced, I was surprised it hasn’t happened already.

We are steadily declining towards more moderation in our orbit and in the tilt of the earth. As for the precession of the earth, it is pointing us in the direction of receiving more solar radiation in the winter than the summer in the northern hemisphere, and this drives us even closer, making glaciation just around the corner.

The earth in essence, is at a point in time when the astronomical cycles that control the ice age are allowing for glaciation to occur. Glaciation has not yet happened. Why? Well, don’t be so quick to suggest that anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is staving off the glaciation. Please note that of the previous four interglacial periods, three of the four were considerably warmer than our current interglacial. It has been estimated that their global temperatures averaged between 3 to 6 degrees Celsius more than our current period. If AGW is a reality, it should be encouraged rather than fought against. Regardless, Mother Nature will always win in the end if pitted against humankind and our meagre contributions to climate change.

But why has not glaciation occurred yet if the conditions are right for it to happen? The answer to this question rests in the concept of the “trigger.”

Glaciation Trigger(s)

One should think that since the mega-climate of the earth is controlled by astronomical cycles ranging from 22,000 to 100,000 years, that the move from cold to warm, or warm to cold climates would take thousands of years to accomplish. The scientific evidence does not reveal such is the case. In fact, these records reveal the exact opposite. When such changes are made, they happen rather abruptly.

For instance, when our current interglacial period commenced 11,500 years ago, the global temperature did not slowly rise over centuries. Oh no. It happened like gang busters and global temperatures rose by 12 degrees Celsius in less than a century. That makes me chuckle when global warming alarmists today called the rise by .74 degrees Celsius in the last century as being “unprecedented.” The continental ice sheets in North America and Eurasia melted rapidly and disappeared within a few hundred years making the Holocene Epoch firmly established.

Abrupt processes happen when the world changes from an interglacial state to a glacial state, as well. A trigger is pulled, or a threshold is passed, and the temperature worldwide drops; it starts to snow and the snow stays all year round in some areas. Within 20 years, the continental ice sheets grow and the packed down snow turns to ice, and their growth does not stop for centuries. Sometimes these ice sheets may recede, due to astronomical cycles such as obliquity (tilt of the earth), but after the maximum of this cycle is finished, the ice sheets grow again. Until the maximums are achieved with the eccentricity cycle, glaciation remains for tens of thousands of years.

There are many factors controlling climate. There are long powerful ones like the astronomical cycles discussed above, and there are the smaller cycles, some of which, we have even less understanding. For instance, there is the factor as to how much solar radiation the sun actually gives off. The energy that the sun gives off is not a constant. We are now aware of these smaller solar cycles, but we are unsure of their specific patterns.

What we do know is that the sun is going into a “quiet” stage right now, and may continue to do so for several more decades. During this quiet stage, less solar energy is being given out. Ever since the sun went quiet (starting in the early 2000’s), it was observed that the global warming rate stopped and global temperatures went flat. Perhaps this was just a coincidence.

Another coincidence could have been the Maunder Minimum which occurred for most of the 17th century. During this Minimum which lasted for 70 years, the sun had virtually no sunspots and this period also coincided with the coldest part of what we term, the “Little Ice Age.”

We also know that explosive volcanic eruptions that give off large quantities of sulfur, can also make the earth very cold. Sulfuric molecules are created in the upper atmosphere and block out solar radiation. In 1815, Mt. Tambora in Indonesia blew its top and this affected the world’s climate considerably for a few years afterward. The year 1816 in the northern hemisphere is known as the year without summer. The growing season was non-existent in many areas, and snow fell in July in the northern hemisphere. People suffered all over the world due to a considerable drop in global temperature, just because of this one volcano erupting.

If during a long solar minimum, there occurred one or more major volcanic eruptions, these factors combined could be a trigger starting a glaciation period. Volcanic eruptions and solar minimums occur relatively frequently. Changes in the ocean currents could also result in dramatic climate changes instigating negative feedback cycles, considerably reducing global temperatures.

At the risk of sounding like an ice age alarmist, when I was analyzing the conditions that ended the previous 10 interglacial periods over the last million years, I came across one of those “holy crap” moments. There was a short and cooler interglacial period about 780,000 years ago. When it ended, as far as the astronomical cycles were concerned, it was the exact carbon copy as our current conditions in this present interglacial - the eccentricity, obliquity, and even the precession were exactly the same as our own at this present moment.

What we do know is that when glaciation occurs, it will be an abrupt change - encompassing only a couple of decades. At this point in time we do not know how or when, but we do know that it is coming.

Sunday, 17 March 2013

The Howard Dynasty

The Howard Dynasty
by James Shepherd

Benjamin Cate Howard (1865-1923) was born with a deep and solid Eastern Townships’ heritage - his grandparents from his father’s side had been Irish immigrants arriving in the Townships in the early 1820’s, and a set of great grandparents from his mother’s side had been part of the Marlow pioneers in Stanstead, arriving from New Hampshire circa 1800. As it was, Ben Howard was born the second son to a farming family on what was known as the Howard Farm, Apple Grove, which was an area just a few miles northwest from where the old Marlow Settlement had been located - present day, Marlington.

In his youth, Ben became a sheep breeder and exhibitor at various county fairs throughout the Townships. He was mildly successful in this endeavour. As he matured, he married Helen Eloisa Salls on January 1st, 1885, and they had their first and only surviving child - Charles Benjamin Howard - in September of that year. By this time they were living in Smith’s Mills (present day, Tomifobia), and Ben soon owned a store. It mattered little how successful this business had been since it burned to the ground in the early 1890’s, and they lost everything.

Ben moved his family to Sherbrooke and started working for Mr. G .A. LeBaron, a well-known and successful Townships’ entrepreneur. Whether is was through Mr. LeBaron or through the contacts he had made when he attended Stanstead College for a few years, we do not know, but what we do know is that when Ben started working in the lumber business, his own entrepreneurial talents began to blossom.

Forming a partnership with a T. M . Craig, known as Howard & Craig, they built several lumber mills, and then pioneered the use of the railways to ship pulp lumber to paper mills. This must have taken a large piece of borrowed capital investment, but it paid off. Before long, Ben made his fortune in the lumber industry, thus forming his own company, B C Howard & Co. He employed his brother-in-law, David Johnson Salls, and through his loyalty and hard work and of other parties like David, the Howard Dynasty became well established by the early 1900s.

However, Ben was more than just a lumber baron, as he diversified his holdings and invested in other companies which included manufacturing, insurance, and real estate; he also sat on the boards of various companies, including financial institutions.

Feeling the need to contribute to the welfare of his community, Ben held such offices as the president of the Sherbrooke General Hospital, and chairman of the Stanstead Wesleyan College. Opening up his estate to the public, he established a large park for its enjoyment.

Of course, in attending to the public interest, Ben also served as alderman for the City of Sherbrooke, representing the North Ward for many years. He died relatively young, passing away in 1923 at the age of 57, but he passed more than just his fortune down to his son.

Senator Charles Benjamin Howard (1885-1964) may have been born in humble circumstances like his father, however, when he reached his teenage years he found himself living within a prominent and privileged family in Sherbrooke, Quebec. Charley received a good education, graduating from Stanstead College and attending various business schools, being groomed to take over the company businesses.

Since Charley knew that the core of the family business was the lumber industry, he took time to learn the business from the ground up by working in even the most hard labour driven areas, like the lumber camps, just so he could have a better understanding. Of course, he may have been encouraged to do so by his father. Regardless as from where the motivation came, Charley was the better for it. He always considered himself, “a lumber man.”

Charley also served as an alderman when he was fairly young, representing Little Lake, Sherbrooke. It seems that he developed a love for the political side of life through serving in municipal government. Driven by ambition, like his father, Charley set his sights upon a greater goal, and in his case, it was for a much larger political arena.

Shortly after his father passed away, Charley ran for the Sherbrooke constituency as a Member of Parliament in Ottawa under the wing of the MacKenzie King Liberals. He was successful and every time he ran for an election he won. He served four terms as a Member of Parliament. When he was ready to retire from the House of Commons, the Prime Minister appointed Charley to the Senate in February, 1940, Wellington Senatorial Division.

Combined with performing his duties as a Senator, and running the family business, which was quite extensive by this time, he ran for Mayor of Sherbrooke. In keeping with tradition, he did not lose that election either and so Charley Howard also served as Mayor of Sherbrooke, 1950-51. He later headed down to New York City in 1952 and served with Lester B. Pearson in Canada’s United Nations delegation.

Charley expanded the Howard family holdings investing in insurance companies, printing companies, and in local Sherbrooke enterprises such as the Sherbrooke Pure Milk Co. Ltd., etc. Near the end of his life, he disposed of his beloved Howardene Estate to the City of Sherbrooke. The Park still bears the Howard name. The three large Anglo-Norman style homes on the estate also found their way into ownership by the City. A street in Sherbrooke bears his name - rue du Sénateur-Howard.

Senator Howard was described as “rotund,” and being hard-nosed at times. However, he was also known to be quite congenial and of a cheery disposition. Through my family, which was related, we learned that he was a very generous man. Charley was also completely bilingual, although not unusual these days for Townships’ Anglophones, for his times, it was relatively uncommon. Married three times, he had two sons from his first marriage with Alberta May Campbell. She died in 1943.

Senator Charles Benjamin Howard passed away in March, 1964, and thus ended the Howard Dynasty.

Men of Today in the Eastern Townships 1917, V.E. Morrill/Erastus G. Pierce, (1917), p. 188.

Parliament of Canada

The Montreal Gazette, (Obituary) Friday March 27, 1964

Unpublished Family Sources

The author is a great grandnephew of the late Benjamin Cate Howard, and is also a first cousin of the late Senator Charles Howard, two generations removed.